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ABOUT TRUCK & BUS TIRE

Control has always been a top priority for Wideway. Thanks to the passion for innovation of our engineers. Wideway’s tires offer increased control on the road.

  • Receipt of tires– Area of conservation

    In bad weather conditions, unloading at the time of receipt must be carried out in a covered area; in any event, if water is found inside the tire, this must be removed immediately. 

    Unloading must not be carried out by dropping the tires or by any other method which could damage the quality or visual aspect of the tires. 

    Tires must not be moved by inserting the forks of a fork lift truck through the center of a tire which could damage the bead area.  

    Tires must be stored inside a clean, dry and ventilated area, protected from direct sunlight or other source of artificial light (illumination must be realized with lamps of low ultraviolet and infrared emission). 

    In the case of temporary external storage, the tires must be covered (eg. with an impermeable opaque material) and protected from contact with water and humidity.

  • Temperature

    The storage temperature must be less than 35°C and preferably less than 25°C. A temperature greater than 50°C, especially if stock rotation is not sufficient, can result in accelerated forms of deterioration, such as to reduce the duration in use of the tire. 
    Avoid contact with heaters and radiators. 

    Very low temperatures in the storage area are not in themselves damaging, but can provoke rigidity of the tire. In this case, they must not be deformed during movement or fitting. 

    If they are destined to be used immediately they are released from storage, it is necessary to keep them for a few hours in an area with a temperature of approximately 20°C.

  • Oxygen, ozone and chemical substances

    Appliances which generate ozone must not be introduced into the storage area, also gas and vapors from combustion which can generate ozone via photo-chemical processes must be excluded from the area. Neither the area or the equipment in the storage location must present traces of solvents, inflammable materials, lubricants, chemical products, acids, disinfectants, rubber solutions, etc. which could prejudice not only the visual aspect but also the characteristics of the product.

  • Deformation

    Tires must not be submitted to any deformation due to tension or compression.

  • Criteria for storage

    Storage for long periods 
    The best method for storage is vertically in rows of one tire high, on racks, positioned at least 10 cm from ground level, with the sidewalls positioned vertically, so that the profile is not altered (fig.1). 
    The vicinity or stacking of other racking or pallets must not deform the profile of the tires. 
    The number of tires per row must be such as to not compromise the sidewalls. 
    As a general indication a stack should not exceed 5 tires. 

    Short term storage
    Up to 4 weeks, tires can be stored in stacks, one on top of the other, preferably on a fixed rack or on stackable pallets, reforming the stack inverting the order of the tires on a weekly basis. 
    In all cases when tires are stored in stacks, it is necessary to ensure that there is no partial misplacement from the vertical plane, in order to avoid any permanent deformation of the lower tires in the stack. 
    The maximum height of the stack must not exceed 1.2m and the tires in the stack must all be of the same dimension. 

  • Inner tubes and valves

    Whether inner tubes are supplied by the producer in single boxes, large boxes or wrapped in plastic film, it is always preferable to maintain the original packaging.
    In alternative they can be stored also slightly inflated, inserted within the tire , or piled deflated, up to a maximum height of 50 cm, on racking shelves with a closed base, accurately avoiding that the valve can damage the surface of the tube when squashed under the pressure of their own weight.

    Ensure that the tubes do not overlap the edge of the plane on which they are stored to avoid accidental laceration.
    It is not recommended to store on slatted pallets because the pressure applied to the tubes will not be uniform.
    Do not hang inner tubes during storage. Valves should be stored in their packaging in a clean, well ventilated and dry location.

  • Flaps

    Flaps should preferably be placed within the tire together with the inner tube. If they are stored separately, they should be placed horizontally, in a pile on a shelf, protected from dust, grease, humidity, ozone and direct sunlight. To avoid deformation and stretching they must not be hung up in any way.

  • Stock rotation

    The storage location must be organized in such a way as to guarantee constant stock rotation, limiting to the minimum the storage period of the tires. Products which enter storage first must be the first to leave. First in, first out.

  • The three key moments in the choice

    THE THREE KEY MOMENTS IN THE CHOICE OF tires FOR A COMMERCIAL VEHICLE

    Generally the choice of a tire by the client may take place at three different moments; they are analysed separately below.


    PURCHASE OF A NEW VEHICLE

    When the client intends purchasing a new vehicle or a new trailer he has to select the product that best responds to his requirements. His choice will be made on the future use of the vehicle.

    The type of journeys made and the type of load are the two variable that usually have most influence over the final purchase.

    The O. E. (Original Equipment) is defined according to the technical specifications of the vehicle.

    Our technical support is, however, important as the fleet manager must be actively involved in order to ensure the choice of the most appropriate tire sizes and tread patterns from the possible range specified by the manufacturer.


    INCREASED PERFORMANCE

    Should the fleet manager wish to improve the performance of his vehicles he will make his choice of tire on the basis of the experience gained with the O. E. tires or those fitted by the previous owner.

    When the time comes to replace the tires (due to damage or variations in the type of use to which the vehicle is normally put) the fleet manager may feel a need to improve the performance of his vehicle in terms of mileage, manoeuvrability and general performance.

    The fleet manager may also wish to up-date the performance of his vehicle (whilst respecting current legislation) by responding to the technical evolution of the products available on the market.


    REPLACEMENT OF WORN TIRES

    When the tires fitted to a vehicle reach the end of their useful life the fleet manager turns to a tire distributor to replace them: if his vehicle is to continue to perform the same tasks he will normally see no need to fit a different size or type of tires.

    However, it may be that the fleet manager has heard of new products capable of providing superior all-round performance and has decided to take them into consideration as an alternative to his old type of tire.

    A third opportunity to assist the fleet manager in his choice occurs when, with winter approaching, he needs to replace his standard tires with winter tires.

  • Tire evolution

  • Why tubeless

    Externally tubeless tires are similar to traditional tires fitted with inner-tubes (Tube Type).
    From a constructional point of view the tubeless tires are distinguished by a special air-tight internal layer of rubber named liner, making the inner-tube superfluous, and by beads with inclined bases allowing easy fitting and a perfect airtight seal.


    ADVANTAGES

    Tubeless tires provide users with a number of advantages. These can be summed up as follows:


    SAFETY

    · In the case of punctures the tire deflates very slowly and only through the hole in the tire, allowing control over the vehicle to be maintained.

    · They provide reliable braking thanks to improved cooling of the brake components.


    ECONOMY

    · Tubeless are more durable and resistant to accidental failure because they are less prone to overheating, thanks to lower rolling resistance, improved heat dispersal due to the absence of the inner-tube and flap and the larger space between the brake drums and the bead area due to the different wheel design.

    · The lower overall weight of the tire/wheel assembly allows a greater payload to be carried.

    · Ease of fitting and removal: the fitting/removal operations can be performed manually, very quickly and by a single operator.

    · The elimination of the risk of damage to the inner-tube during removal of the tire and of subsequent problems with the tube or flap.

    · Lower costs of the Tubeless rim and tire set in comparison to Tube Type.


    COMFORT

    Improved balance. The lack of an inner-tube, flap and movable wheel components reduces the likelihood of vibration due to out of round or unbalanced wheels.


    RIMS

    The tubeless well-type wheel rims are constructed in one piece with bead seats inclined at 15 and lowered flanges, rather than complicated multipiece tube type rims.


  • Low Profile Tires

    Increasing numbers of high powered vehicles means a growing demand for high performance tires which are designed to provide these vehicles with increased stability, excellent roadholding in corners and under braking and improved handling.

    All these advantages can be achieved by fitting low profile tires.

    These tires also provide a lower loading platform facilitating easier loading and unloading operations and providing a greater useful loading volume whilst remaining within the dimensional restrictions and the loads specified by local legislation.

    When fitted to buses these tires lower the platform height of the vehicle facilitating passenger access to and from the vehicle. Appropriate further benefits can be obtained with the ultra low profile series (/60, /70).


  • Tire Size Conversions

    Changing from one size of tire to another is a relatively complex operation and is not always possible.
    It must confort the vehicles manufacturer’s recommendations and the local regulations.
    For this reason we have listed below a series of fleet managers considerations to help our technical and commercial personnel advise clients on the compatibility of tire sizes.
    Before changing the size of tire fitted the following points regarding both the tire and the vehicle should be checked:


    LOAD CAPACITY
    The load capacity of the replacement tire should not be inferior to that of the original tire, or at least it should be compatible with the maximum loads homologated for the vehicle in question.


    SPEED
    The speed code of the replacement tire must correspond to the maximum speed of the vehicle.
    In some countries it is sufficient to respect the maximum speed imposed by the governor. 


    EXTERNAL DIAMETER OF tire
    Every vehicle is designed for a certain tire size.
    In order not to impare the performance of the vehicle the tire sizes should only vary within certain limits.
    The increase or decrease in the diameter of the tire leads to a corresponding variation in the rolling circumference, which can affect both the vehicle height and vehicle speedometer and tachograph. 
    The permitted variation is of ± 5%.


    WHEEL RIMS
    Check that the new tire can be fitted to the existing wheel rims (consult the “Technical Data” booklet). If not, replace the rims.


    SIZE
    It is important to check that the tire and the wheel do not foul any part of the bodywork or the mechanical components of the vehicle at full articulation of the wheel. Furthermore, the tire must not protrude from the vehicle, or exceed local vehicle width regulations. 
    The minimum clearances that should in general be respected are as follows:
    vertical space, that is the distance between the top of the tire and the wheelarch, this must be for a fully laden vehicle = 70/80 mm.

    lateral space, that is, the distance between the sidewalls of the tire and the closest part of the vehicle: 

    fixed components (springs, spring hangers, brake arms), in this case the minimum distance should be 15 mm. 
    Mobile components (coachwork, mudguards, steering arms), in this case the minimum distance should be 50 mm. 

    The steering wheels should be checked on full lock.
    Wheel to brake drum space, that is the distance separating the wheel and the brake drum.
    The wheel must revolve freely and allow the brake drum to be ventilated.
    The minimum distance should be at least 15 mm.
    dual spacing for twinned tires, that is the distance separating the mid-points of twin tires.
    The technical tables in the “Technical data” booklet should be checked for this information.
    The distance between the twinned tires should be such that:

    · it allows heat to be dispersed

    · it avoids the trapping of foreign bodies between the tires which may cause damage.

    This section contains tables showing compatible loads for different tire sizes (at given axle loads).
    It should be remembered that any change of tire size must respect all current legislation and the homologation specifications of the vehicle in question.


    COMPATIBILITY IS CALCULATED ON THE BASIS OF THE LOADING CAPACITY.

    It is important to choose tires in relation to the use to which they will be put.
    For long-distance transport low profile tires (/80 series) are advised whilst ultra-low profile tires (/70, /60 series) are suggested for volume transport.


The following table allows us to optimise our choice of tire in relation to the percentage of off-road use and the type of terrain in question.

COMMERCIAL VEHICLES(ON/OFF-EUROPE)

%

OFF

MUDTRACK ROCK EXTREME OFF 
1%-20%

CR926

CR916

CR926

CR916

CR926

CR916

CR926

CR916

CR926

CR916

CR987

CR913

CR926

CR916

CR915

CR917

CR918

CR919

21%-70%

CR926

CR916

CR987

CR913

CR926

CR916

CR987

CR913

CR926

CR916

CR987

CR913

CR987

CR913

CR923

CR915

CR917

CR918

CR919

CR915

CR917

CR918

CR919

>71%

CR926

CR916

CR913

CR987

CR913

CR926

CR916

CR913

CR987

CR913

CR923

CR987

CR913

CR923

CR923

CR922

CR927

CR915

CR917

CR918

CR919

CR915

CR917

CR918

CR919


        segment G         segment Q         segment F

  • What does “rolling resistance” for a tire mean?

    There are forces in nature that oppose the movement of a vehicle.


    One of these is the tendency for a tire to resist rolling by losing shape and absorbing energy, which is dissipated in the form of heat.


    Tyre deformation is caused by a number of factors, including: pressure, load applied, type of structure, size (diameter and tread width), and the quantity and characteristics of the materials used (particularly the compounds).

     

    All of these parameters are optimised when a given tire is designed based on the performance required, but the end user is responsible for ensuring proper tire pressure and load.

     

    Rolling resistance is often mentioned when talking about fuel consumption.


    Indeed, for an industrial vehicle moving in a straight line at the highest speed allowed by law, the tires can account for up to one-third of the fuel consumed.

  • What is a 6x4 vehicle?

    In 6x4, the first number indicates the total number of hubs on a motor vehicle ( i.e. the ends of the axles on which the wheels are mounted), whereas the second number indicates how many of these hubs transmit power.

     

    In this way, we can easily identify all-wheel drive vehicles as 4x4, 6x6, 8x8, 10x10, etc. , whereas in the case of 6x4, we have a vehicle with three axles (and 6 hubs), with only 2 drive axles (for 4 hubs).

     

    With this type of classification, it is not possible to know if the configuration of the vehicle calls for the use of twin tires or how many steering axles the vehicle has.

  • Is aspect ratio always indicated in the tire code?

    Normally, for the latest generation of tire sizes, i .e . with a nominal tire width expressed in millimeters, the aspect ratio appears after the “/” (e .g . 315/80 R 22 .5). 


    This number is a percentage and represents the ratio of the total width of the inflated tire (or its “chord”) and the sidewall height (the distance from the base of the bead to the highest point of the tread).

     

    In certain standardised sizes, which tire width is still expressed in inches, the aspect ratio is not always clearly indicated.


    In the size 12 . 00 R 20, the number 12 is the nominal chord, while 00 indicates the aspect ratio, which is normally recognised as having an aspect ratio of 100 (more accurately, for radial tires the ratio is closer to 98%).

     

    Another example of a size in inches is 13 R 22.5, where the aspect ratio is not indicated at all.
    In such cases, it is normally considered to be an aspect ratio of 90, although technically the ratio is more like 85%.

  • Do all tires homologated for sale in Europe have to include the E3 code imprinted on the sidewall?

    The number following the “E” indicates the country in which the tire was homologated. For example, E3 simply indicates the tire was homologated in Italy, but a tire can just as easily bear other country codes. For example, E4 indicates the Netherlands, and E1 is for Germany.


  • On the sides of some tires for industrial vehicles, there’s a number followed by “PR”. What does this mean?

    This indicator is now obsolete in Europe and relates to the old standards for “conventional” tire carcasses, which were based on multiple overlapping textile fabrics.


    “PR” stands for ply rating (number of layers) and is an indicator of the tire’s load capacity or resistance, but is entirely unrelated to the current load index system.

     

    In Latin America or in Africa, where these conventional tires are still in use, this labeling is required even for steel radial tires (and is usually located next to the load index), which is why tire manufacturers still tend to include it in their lettering. 

     

    However, even when it’s not indicated, it’s possible to find it by checking the DOT code for the North American market (if found). 

     

    This lettering includes an indicator for load range (LR) on a scale from A to N, and a conversion table can then be used to convert load range to ply rating. For example, LR G corresponds to 14 PR.

  • What components are essential when manufacturing a truck tire?

    The basis of the compounds used is definitely natural rubber.


    There are various kinds, and only certain types have the physical and mechanical characteristics for use in tires.


    The natural rubber is then “reinforced” mainly with carbon black.

     

    Here, too, depending on the number and size of the particles (i.e. how fine the grain is), various types of performance can be achieved. 


    For example, some types of carbon blacks are used to increase tire life in terms of distance travelled, while others significantly increase stress resistance.


    For this reason, some 15 different compounds can be used in a tire, depending on their function and where they are used within the tire.

     

    Nowadays, the structural part of a truck tire is based on steel cord (of various diameters) that form the “frame” of the tire to which the compounds are then applied, encompassing the frame. In a truck tire, steel can account for more than 20% of its total weight.

  • Why do tires sometimes wear irregularly?

    Irregular tire wear can be the result of one or more mechanical or geometric characteristics of the vehicle that are beyond tolerance levels (alignment, camber, worn shock absorbers, air leaks, etc.) and/or of incorrect tire pressure. 


    Once it has started, it’s diff cult to correct, but it is possible to reduce the rate at which the irregular wear progresses by restoring the vehicle to its optimal condition. 


    There is also a type of treadwear that is typical of the drive axis (high power/ torque or use of a retarder system) that is seen with high tread depths and which tends to regress proportionately with tread wear.


  • When should tires be changed?

    Driving safety, especially in unfavourable weather conditions, depends on a great many factors with the depth of the tire tread playing an essential role.


    Performance in the wet diminishes in proportion to tread depth.


    Tread depth should never be less than the prevailing legal limit (e.g. 1.6mm in Europe), which is why tires bear a tread wear indicator (or TWI) to warn when this limit has been reached. However, for safety reasons, we recommend replacing tires when tread depth approaches 3mm.


  • Why is proper tire pressure important and how often should it be checked?

    Tyre pressure does not remain constant over time, but rather tends to diminish due to a number of factors.
    Proper tire pressure is key to tire safety, performance and durability. 
    Tyre pressure that is too low leads to overheating and consequently to tire damage. 
    reduced driving safety and irregular tire wear. These shorten tire life.
    Excessive pressure, on the other hand, lowers performance by reducing the tire’s contact patch with the road, lowering driving comfort and shortening tire life. 
    Pressure of the tires, including the spare, should be checked at least once a month while the tires are cold and corrected when necessary.

  • Can Tube Type tires (e.g. with a 20” rim diameter) be mounted tubeless?

    It is very much not recommended to mount a Tube Type Tire without an inner tube. 


    This type of tire does not have a suitable liner compound or liner thickness to ensure that it won’t let air pass through it and, consequently, through the tire’s carcass, which could cause serious problems.

     

    However, there are tires with a 20” or 24” rim diameter that can be used tubeless.


    Such products are intended for niche markets (e.g. military use) and have been designed specifically for use with run-flat/bead-lock systems that cannot be used with an inner tube.

     

    Should you not need these accessories, it is normally possible to mount the tire with a tube (following the manufacturer’s instructions) using a specific fixed-valve modular rim with seal (either round or triangular).

  • Are there any “winter” tires for heavyduty vehicles?

    Current legislation allows for “standard” tires to be differentiated from “winter” tires using the M+S label (or also MS, M&S, M/S or M-S), which stands for mud and snow.


    In fact, European regulations have established that tires with the M+S label are equivalent to chains. 


    The best tires manufacturers for medium/ heavy-duty tires do have specific products for those who often find themselves driving in temperatures below -5°C and in heavy snow.

     

    In such cases, each manufacturer has different methods for labeling the specific features of their products, but it is common for there to be a snowflake on the side of the tire. 

     

    The tread pattern of such a specific purpose tire is easily recognizable because it features a dense system of sipes, whereas the width of the tire will depend on the type of tire design (e. g. for fresh snow, compact snow, mixed conditions, etc.).

  • What is the purpose of sipes in a tread pattern?

    The sipes cut into the tire tread are very important to obtaining proper tire performance. 


    For this reason, a large part of the time that Wideway dedicates to tread patterns concerns the study of these sipes. Sipes have at least 3 functions in particular: 

     

    1) sipes to improve consistency in tire wear are designed to optimize the tire’s contact patch and to better distribute the pressures applied to this area. 
    They are normally positioned where it is necessary to reduce the rigidity of the blocks or ribs.
    In addition, by increasing the tread’s local mobility, they help to better reduce the forces applied;

     

    2) sipes to increase traction in wet conditions create additional “edges” in order to increase lateral grip and/or tire traction/ braking. 
    Of course, it’s necessary to find the proper balance in the number of sipes used, which depends on the use of the tire and the physical and mechanical characteristics of the tread compound used.
    For example, in “on/off” tread patterns, there should be no sipes, or as few as possible, in order to avoid worsening the cut resistance of the tire. 
    Sipes also play an essential role in the rain in that they “break” the layer of water that forms on the asphalt.
    In snowy conditions, the sipes capture the snow, through snow-on-snow contact, in order to reduce sliding; 

     

    3) sipes for acoustic/ style purposes are an element that distinguishes the tire in the eyes of the future user by providing the performance and other particular features desired.
    But their function is not purely one of style. 
    In recent times, they have taken on greater importance with the introduction of noise-reduction regulations.
    Indeed, sipes are also used in order to alter the frequency of the sounds made by new tires in order to reduce the noise that can be disturbing to the human ear.

  • Seeing the word “REGROOVABLE” written on the side of Commercial vehicle tires is becoming more and more common. What does it mean?

    “REGROOVABLE” means that the tire has been specifically designed to be regrooved. 


    Regrooving must always be performed by a specialist who restores a used tire’s tread by re-cutting the tread grooves using special equipment. 


    Tyre manufacturers provide instructions on recommended groove width and the maximum depth of rubber to be removed from the base of the tread.

     

    All tires that could possibly undergo this procedure must be inspected. Regrooving is not advisable if the tread shows signs of lacerations, cuts or cracking. 


    Tyre tread regrooving safely allows the user to optimise tire mileage, and particularly in road application does not jeopardise the tires remoulding potential.

  • The treads on road trailer and semi-trailer tires all seem to run lengthways around the tire; is there a technical reason for this?

    Tires on trailers/semi-trailers require different levels of performance than products mounted on drive axles. 
    For this reason, tires are often designed according to both size and application.

     

    Tread design has specific characteristics and is designed to enhance performance in terms of mileage, wear uniformity, rolling resistance and braking. 


    The most frequent conditions affecting trailers/semi-trailers are largely influenced by lateral forces that cause high levels of contact friction with the ground. 

     

    Manufacturers have therefore deemed a tread design which runs around the circumference of a tire the most suitable for achieving the required performance goals. 


    We must take into account that tractor+semi-trailer or tractor+trailer systems are designed to ensure distributed braking, whereby the towed unit brakes slightly in advance.

     

    If transverse treads were used, when braking on a rough surface (e.g. due to a manhole in the road), the tire would be tugged back with a risk of tearing the tread.

  • Is it possible to trace the date of manufacture of a tire?

    There is a code that shows the product’s “date of birth”. 
    By law, situated on the lower part of the tire sidewall, i.e. the part closest to the rim. 
    At the end of a series of codes, must display a four digit code (for tires made after 2000); the first two digits indicate the week of manufacture, while the final two show the year. 
    Therefore for the number 2009, the tire was made in the 20th week of the year 2009.


  • What do the letters FRT mean on some trailer tires?

    The letters FRT (Free Roling Tyre) are present on most products specifically for use on trailers/ semi-trailers.


    Legally the FRT mark indicates products which must not be fitted on drive axles and front steering axles of vehicles, but can be mounted on all axles of trailers/ semi-trailers and on any additional axles of a vehicle.


    These are very robust products (the load index is normally higher than normal products) specially designed to withstand strong stresses in the use of trailers such as: sliding, lateral pressure and high loads.


    For this reason, driving performance features have been sacrificed and the speed code is also limited to use on trailers. Mounting FRT products on drive axles or front steering axles of vehicles is, therefore, technically inadvisable as well as being illegal.


  • Do all valves have the same technical specifications?

    It must first be said that there are many types of valve on the market and each has been designed for a specific use.

     

    The first thing to do is to check the category mark normally found on the stem or at the base of the valve. If the code starts with V3 then the valve is specific for use on commercial vehicles.

     

    V1 identifies valves for bicycles and motorcycles and V2 for cars.

     

    There are, however, particular cases in which valves of different categories are used (normally if special inflation pressures are required).

     

    For heavy commercial vehicles, there are valves with essentially 2 maximum pressure levels (1050 kPa and 1400 kPa) depending on the size of the tire, rim and valve hole.

     

    It is important to check regularly that the valves are working correctly. The easiest way to do this it to wet the tip and base of the valve with soap and water.

     

    If bubbles are formed it may be necessary to tighten the valve mechanism (with a special instrument) or to check that the valve is tightened on the ring with the correct torque.

     

    If the air leak persists, it is advisable to have the valve checked by a specialist.

     

    To be able to check the pressure of tires correctly we recommend the use of specific extensions (for the internal tires of twin axles) and to protect the valve mechanism from dirt and dust we recommend fitting valve caps.

  • Increasingly often tires are appearing on the market with an arrow embossed on the sidewall. What’s it for?

    In the last few years products have been marketed with this characteristic.

    These are specific tires for drive axles and the arrow indicates the preferred direction of rotation. On mounting the tire, therefore, make sure to check whether there is such a mark, and if so, take this into account and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

    In this way, the designers have tried to optimize performance.

    Setting a preferred direction of rotation makes it possible to improve the features of quietness, traction, resistance to slippage and regularity of wear.

    In practice, if these instructions are not followed, the tire “works” under non-optimal conditions and the characteristics mentioned above may be adversely affected.


SIZE CONVERSIONS

This section contains tables showing compatible loads for different tire sizes (at given axle loads). 

It should be remembered that any change of tire size must respect all current legislation and the homologation specifications of the vehicle in question. 

Compatibility is calculated on the basis of the loading capacity.

It is important to choose tires in relation to the use to which they will be put. 

For long-distance transport low profile tires (/80 series) are advised whilst ultra-low profile tires (/70, /60 series) are suggested for volume transport.



Various replacement alternatives are possible: the fundamental factor to consider is the original load capacity.The following information will help in interpreting the diagram:

-the vehicle is fitted with 10.00 R 20 146/143 L Original Equipment tires

-the external diameter is 1053 mm.

-If a standard tubeless tire is to be fitted the corresponding size will be 11 R 22.5 148/145 L, with the following advantages:

-virtually identical external diameter

-superior loading capacity (6300/11600 kg per axle as against 6000/10900 kg). Being a Tubeless Tire, it offers all the advantages explained before.

The same kind of study can be done starting from a different basic size.